Lībija (2011)

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Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 22 Feb 2012 16:05

No rest for Libya: Over 130 killed in tribal clashes
Published: 22 February, 2012, 03:14
More than 130 people have been killed in fighting between two tribes in Libya’s remote south-eastern area. This comes as NTC forces struggle to secure full control over Libya following the fall of the Gaddafi regime.
Some 113 people from the Toubu tribe and 23 from the Zwai tribe have been killed in the remote town of Kufra in the Sahara Desert, tribal sources told Agence-France-Presse on Tuesday.
The ruling NTC has so far not intervened. "We tried calling the NTC but they have not responded," the chief of the Toubu tribe told AFP.
"We have been under siege for a week. Since the start of the clashes, 113 people from our side have been killed, including six children," said Issa Abdelmajid, chief of the Toubu tribe, which fought Muammar Gaddafi’s forces during last year’s uprising. He added that 241 members of his tribe had been injured.
A spokesperson for the Zwai tribe confirmed 23 deaths and said that 53 people from their side had been wounded. Yunus Zwai added that the opposing tribe has the support of outside forces.
“People from the Toubu tribe are being helped by foreign elements from Chad and Sudan. We have arrested several Chadian and Sudanese fighters,” Yunus Zwai, spokesman for Kufra local council, told AFP.
The clashes are undermining the NTC’s efforts to maintain the country’s unity after the removal of the regime of Colonel Gaddafi. In January, forces opposed to the NTC managed to retake the former Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid.
http://rt.com/news/libya-tribal-clashes-ntc-897/

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 01 Mar 2012 15:28

Extraordinary threat? Obama prolongs Libyan sanctions
http://rt.com/news/obama-libya-sanctions-continue-139/
Gaddafi’s gone but the Libyan threat remains. That is what President Obama thinks anyway as he told congress the sanctions his administration slapped on Libya in 2011 will remain in place for another year.
­Obama informed US Congress via letter on Thursday that the continuing threat posed by family members of the slain Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi constituted a lingering threat to US interests.
“The situation in Libya continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States,” he wrote.
“We are in the process of winding down the sanctions in response to the many positive developments in
Libya, including the fall of Gaddafi and his government,” Obama further stated.
But Obama remains adamant that remnants of Gaddafi’s family present a clear and present danger to the US.
“We need to protect against this threat and the diversion of assets or other abuse by certain members of Gaddafi’s family and other former regime officials.”
He then concluded that it is “necessary to continue the national emergency with respect to Libya.”
Obama first declared a national emergency over Libya at the outset of the bloody uprising last February in response to perceived threats by Gaddafi to US national security and foreign policy.
National emergency regulations grant the US president the power to impose sanctions on foreign countries.
In December the US and UN Security Council lifted most of the sanctions which had been imposed on Libya, a move which subsequently freed up $30 billion in frozen assets.
But since the US-NATO campaign ousted the former Libyan leader last October, the current threat to most Libyans has little connection to the remnants of the Gaddafi era.
Widespread reports of torture and other human rights abuses at the hands of both the new regime and various tribal militias have highlighted the anarchic nature of post-Gaddafi Libya.
And last Monday, local residents drove pro-government forces out of Bani Walid in response to regular abuses committed by former rebel fighters.
In light of the situation on the ground, it remains curious that President Obama would see elements of the former regime as posing the greatest security threat to US interests.
For the Libyan people, many of the forces currently unleashing chaos across the country are seemingly the very ones President Obama helped bring to power.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 08 Mar 2012 19:51

East Libyan leaders declare autonomy from Tripoli
REUTERS - Delegates announced plans for greater autonomy on Tuesday in the Libyan city of Benghazi, prompting an immediate warning from the central government of a foreign-inspired plot to break up the country.
About 3,000 delegates in the eastern city announced they were setting up a council to run Cyrenaica, the province which is home to Libya’s biggest oil fields, in defiance of the government in Tripoli.
The declaration tapped into longstanding unhappiness in the east of Libya at what it regards as neglect and marginalisation by the rulers in the capital, more than 1,000 km (620 miles) to the west.
It deepened the troubles of the National Transitional Council (NTC), the body internationally recognised as Libya’s leadership after last year’s rebellion ousted Muammar Gaddafi. The NTC is already struggling to assert its authority over militias and towns which pay little heed to Tripoli.
“I regret to say that these (foreign) countries have financed and supported this plot that has arisen in the east,” NTC chairman Mustafa Abdel Jalil told reporters.
“I call on my brothers, the Libyan people, to be aware and alert to the conspiracies that are being plotted against them and to be aware that some people are dragging the country back down into a deep pit.”
Moves towards greater autonomy for Cyrenaica—the birth-place of the anti-Gaddafi revolt—may worry international oil companies operating in Libya because it raises the prospect of them having to re-negotiate their contracts with a new entity.
A member of staff who answered the phone at Benghazi-based Arabian Gulf Oil Company (Agoco), Libya’s biggest state-owned oil firm, said the 3,000 employees had been deliberating about whether or not to back the autonomy declaration.
“Some people are in favour and some people are against but there is no official stance yet,” the Agoco employee said.
Several hundred people gathered in Benghazi on Tuesday night to protest against the push for autonomy. They carried placards saying: “No to federalism.”

Royal line
The congress in Benghazi named Ahmed al-Senussi, a relative of Libya’s former king and a political prisoner under Gaddafi, as leader of the self-declared Cyrenaica Transitional Council.
An eight-point declaration said the “Cyrenaica Provincial Council is hereby established ... to administer the affairs of the province and protect the rights of its people”.
It said, though, that it accepted the NTC as “the country’s symbol of unity and its legitimate representative in international arenas.”
The declaration in Benghazi does not carry legal force. It was not clear if the Cyrenaica council would operate within the framework of the NTC, or as a rival to it.
One analyst said the congress in Benghazi would change little on the ground.
“Today’s statement from Benghazi was more a declaration by a group in favour of a high degree of autonomy, rather than a declaration of that autonomy itself,” said Alex Warren, a director of Frontier, a Middle East and North Africa consultancy.
“In reality, Libya is now effectively composed of many de facto self-governing towns and cities, overseen by a weak central authority,” he said.
“The process of integrating these into a new political and economic structure will be volatile ... but I don’t necessarily see it as the spark for any major civil conflict.”

Sidelined
Cyrenaica stretches westwards from the Egyptian border to the Sirte, half-way along Libya’s Mediterranean coastline.
The province enjoyed prestige and power under King Idris, Libya’s post-independence ruler, because the royal family’s powerbase was in the east.
But when the king was toppled by Gaddafi in a military coup in 1969, eastern Libya was sidelined for the next four decades. Residents complain that they have been denied a fair share of the country’s oil wealth.
The rebellion last year which overthrew Gaddafi gave new impetus to calls for local self-determination in the east. These became even more vocal as frustration grew with the slow pace at which the new leadership in Tripoli was restoring order and public services after the revolt.
Some Libyans have dismissed the moves for autonomy in eastern Libya as a ploy by a coterie of wealthy families who had prospered under the old monarchy.
http://www.france24.com/en/20120306-lib ... federalism

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 18 Mar 2012 17:36

Mar 18, 10:12 AM EDT
Clashes erupt in Libya's capital, 1 killed
By RAMI AL-SHAHEIBI
Associated Press

TRIPOLI, Libya (AP) -- A clash has erupted in Libya's capital, Tripoli, between a militia and residents, killing at least one person.
The fighting involves a powerful militia from Zintan in Libya's western mountains and armed residents of a Tripoli neighborhood once loyal to ousted dictator Moammar Gadhafi.
The well-equipped fighters from Zintan are one of many militias outside government control.
Zintan rebel commander Mohammed el-Rebay said one of his fighters was killed Sunday. He said the two sides are firing automatic rifles at each other.
The clashes are taking place in Tripoli's Abu Selim neighborhood, a pro-Gadhafi stronghold.
The opposition took control of the city in August and later captured and killed Gadhafi.
After Tripoli fell, the Zintan rebels took over a school in the district and converted it into a military base.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 26 Mar 2012 18:25


youtu.be/RRLyffW8faQ

Colonel Muammar Gaddafi was wanted dead so his secrets would die with him. So insists Mahmoud Jibril, the man who led the NTC uprising to overthrow Colonel Gaddafi's regime, in an exclusive interview with RT.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 30 Mar 2012 16:00

Militia clashes in southern Libya kill nearly 50
(Reuters) - Three days of clashes between rival militias in southern Libya spread to the centre of the country's fourth largest city Sabha on Tuesday despite the deployment of army troops trying to stop the violence which has so far killed nearly 50 people.
The clashes highlight the problems the government faces in imposing its authority following the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi last year.
Fighting between gunmen from Sabha and those from the Tibu ethnic group had reached the centre of the city, said Ibrahim Misbah, a doctor at the main hospital.
An Interior Ministry official said the army had sent 300 soldiers stationed in southern Libya to help calm the situation on Monday. Another 300 soldiers left Tripoli on Tuesday to assist, he added.
Sabha fighter Oweidat al-Hifnawi said government forces had arrived in Sabha and were "in the middle of the clashes".
"We know that they are here to try to solve the problem and not fight," he said. "There are unconfirmed reports that they have retreated out of the city."
The ruling National Transitional Council (NTC) is struggling to assert its authority across Libya, where rival militias and tribal groups are jostling for power and resources after the revolution that ousted Gaddafi.
Hampered by a lack of a coherent national army, the NTC has struggled to persuade the many militias who fought Gaddafi to lay down their arms and join the armed forces and police.
Abdulmajid Saif al-Nasser, an NTC representative for Sabha, said he was resigning in protest because he said the Council was not doing enough to stop the violence.
"I have not seen any reaction from the Council to what is happening now in Sabha. The air force has not been sent out, there was only a plane from the health ministry carrying medicine," he told Libyan television. "The state is supposed to intervene in these cases ... but there is no state."

CLOSE TO 50 PEOPLE KILLED

Fourteen people were killed on Tuesday and 30 people wounded, Misbah said, giving numbers for the Sabha side. Around 20 people were killed in fighting by Monday, he said.
"The hospital crew has been working around the clock since Monday night and the injured keep coming in," he told Reuters.
Ali Galama, a Tibu representative on the NTC from Murzuq, south of Sabha, said 15 people were killed on the Tibu side and 18 were wounded. While he was speaking from Benghazi, he said he was in touch with Tibu in the area by telephone.
The fighting broke out on Sunday after a Sabha man was killed in a dispute over a car.
A fighter called Hifnawi said the clashes had moved from around the airport to the downtown area. "There are Tibu snipers all over the Sabha city centre and the number of the wounded keeps going up," Hifnawi said.
Mousa al-Koni, a Tibu representative on the NTC, said by phone from Tunis that the clashes had escalated after Tibu former fighters tried to steal a car from a member of the Sabha militia. He said a reconciliation committee was being formed to help stop the violence.
Last month, dozens of people were killed in clashes between tribes in the far southeastern province of Al Kufra. Armed forces eventually intervened to stop the fighting, in a rare example of the Tripoli government imposing its authority.
(Writing By Hadeel Al-Shalchi and Marie-Louise Gumuchian, editing by David Stamp)
http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/03/ ... 5K20120327

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 02 Apr 2012 14:10

150 dead in Libyan tribal clashes reveal vacuum in authority
Published: 01 April, 2012, 00:13
Edited: 01 April, 2012, 17:22
Libya's interim government says a ceasefire has been reached in a six-day conflict between two tribes that has claimed some 150 lives in the southern city of Sabha. However, the violence exposes the government's tenuous grasp in the country.
Premier Minister Abdel Rahim al-Kib told reporters in the capital Tripoli that "calm now prevails in Sabha." Previous ceasefires had been announced throughout the week, but collapsed within hours each time, as deep-seated local tensions erupted into violence.
The conflict in Sabha is between the indigenous Arabic population and the Tubu, a tribe that stretches through Niger, Chad and Libya itself, though its members are regarded as outsiders by many in the city.
Residents of the oasis say that the rivalry burst into open conflict Monday after a Tubu shot a member of the Arab Abu Seif tribe. Further aggravating the conflict, a delegation of Tubu elders and armed men heading to reconciliation talks were ambushed. The violence escalated as more and more families were dragged into a deadly blood feud that killed almost 150 people. In addition to the dead, more than four hundred have been injured, overwhelming local hospitals.
Sabha residents say the two groups exchanged fire with automatic rifles, mortars, and rockets. Tubu tribal spokesman Mohammed Lino said some 70 Tubu homes were torched and 100 families were forced to flee the city during the past week of violence. Some families from Sabha said they fled the city by foot as bullets whizzed by, sometimes striking women and children.
Libya's Tubu have kinsmen living across the border in Chad, and the defense ministry said Saturday that it sent a number of militiamen and national army soldiers to the country's southern border in case other African tribes tried to join the fight. Other militiamen as well as tribal chiefs from around Libya were dispatched to Sabha over the past few days. On Thursday, a cease-fire was reportedly brokered that residents say has held in the city, though not outside.
­
Libya disintegrating

Although Libya’s National Transitional Council nominally controls all of the country, in practice it has struggled to integrate the disparate tribal militias who fought Gaddafi into a single national force. As a result, large parts of Libya have disintegrated into separate fiefdoms.
The clashes in the oasis region some 650 kilometers south of Tripoli show the fragile authority of the Libyan government, particularly in the isolated settlements that dot the southern desert. With only a nascent national army and police force, Libya's ruling National Transitional Council relies on militias comprised of former rebels to keep the peace. However, the country's vast distances make it difficult to deploy them to trouble spots.
The Council has already been accused of passivity, but no-one knows for sure if it actually has the manpower to resolve a conflict in a city that far away from the capital.
The Sabha conflict is not the first major outbreak of violence. Clashes in Al Kufra, also involving the Tubu, killed more than a hundred people last month.
http://rt.com/news/libya-sabha-tubu-tribal-944/

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 04 Apr 2012 16:30

Renewed clashes between Libyan militias, 26 dead
Published: 04 April, 2012, 18:00
At least 26 people have been killed as violence flares up once again in the western Libyan town of Zwara.
­This comes after tensions sparked over the weekend between the Arab-majority town of Ragdalein and the Berber-dominated town of Zwara, about 110 kilometers west of the capital Tripoli.
The violence is fuelled by deep-rooted animosity between the neighbors, who took different sides in Libya's civil war that toppled Muammar Gaddafi last year.
The clashes had escalated by Tuesday, with militia groups opening tank and artillery fire on each other. At least 22 people died in the fighting.
The National Transitional Council (NTC), which took power after Gaddafi's capture and killing in October, has struggled to stamp its authority on the country and rein in the myriad armed groups that helped defeat the dictator's forces but have refused to disarm.
These local rivalries threaten to divide Libya along tribal and regional lines.
http://rt.com/news/libya-fighting-conflict-dead-243/

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 12 Apr 2012 10:44

Libya: So it was all about oil after all!
http://rt.com/news/libya-all-about-oil-818/
Last year NATO countries bombed Libya, demanding “democracy” in the country. But now it’s clear it was all about oil and it’s not like the Americans and Brits are going to be democratic about it, and share those spoils equally with France and Italy.
So… oil giants Total from France and ENI from Italy are just going to have to wait in the sidelines while the hungry American and British big boys take their juicy oil slices first… ExxonMobil, Chevron, Texaco, BP, Shell…
It’s no surprise then to read in The Wall Street Journal that the US Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC), together with the puppet Libyan “authorities” are launching “investigations” into both companies’ “financial irregularities” in their shady dealings during the forty-two years of Gaddafi’s power. Now who would have imagined this! An Italian oil company involved in kick-backs? Corruption at the highest echelons of the French oil industry?!? Tsk, tsk!!! Unheard of…! The US and UK would never do something like that!! Just ask Enron, ask Halliburton, ask BP…
Clearly, major oil companies will now be judged on how close or how far they were from the Gaddafi’s, and on how much their respective countries contributed to last year’s war effort. Perhaps even on how much and how far and wide they shared their huge ill-obtained profits. It seems that scorecards must now be completed…
It’s worth remembering that at the height of the Libyan fighting last year, the “rebels” found the necessary time, between their “freedom fighting” shifts, to set up a new national oil company. As Bloomberg reported on 22nd March 2011, “The Transitional National Council released a statement announcing the decision made at a March 19 meeting to establish the “Libyan Oil Company as supervisory authority on oil production and policies in the country, based temporarily in Benghazi, and the appointment of an interim director general” of the company.”
And just as big oil and big finance always dance together, that report then went on to explain that “The Council also said it “designated the Central Bank of Benghazi as a monetary authority competent in monetary policies in Libya and the appointment of a governor to the Central Bank of Libya, with a temporary headquarters in Benghazi.”
Like Romeo and Juliet, Tristan and Isolde, or Abelard and Eloise, Oil and Money are probably the West’s most universal and paradigmatic duo. Their love affair has been going strong for many decades.
Oil is a mighty powerful global business. Oil companies can make or break governments and entire countries. Nationalizing a foreign oil company like Iran did in the early fifties can put the CIA and MI6 spy agencies into full-gear ousting democratically elected governments and replacing them with “more suitable leaders'.
Trading oil in any currency other than the US Dollar as Saddam Hussein dared to do in November 2002 can get you invaded just a few months later. Even weak Argentina’s finger-pointing at illegal British oil escapades in the Falkland Islands resulted in the Royal Navy dispatching super destroyers and nuclear subs to the region…
Libya is the world’s 9th largest oil producing country and holds Africa’s largest oil reserve. Gaddafi was planning to introduce a new currency for Libyan and regional oil: the Gold Dinar which, contrary to the US Dollar, would have had true intrinsic value. Gaddafi’s central bank, in turn, was fully independent of the global financial usury-based system presently in global free-fall. Gaddafi was using oil revenues for his own people and not for the US/UK/EU/Israeli war efforts in the Middle East and further afield.
So, when the Persian Gulf became the very, very hot spot it is today, the global oil cartel together with the mega-bankers who shuffle those trillions upon trillions of Petro-Dollars all over the world, had to make sure that their respective governments would put their military on red-alert, as the oil giants scrambled for new sources…
The focus is increasingly on oil fields lying in “kinder, gentler” parts of the world: the Falkland Islands, the Brazilian Coasts, and Libya that lies smack in the middle of that easy-to-attack “it’s our-bloody-Mediterranean-Sea” North African Coast.
Last year’s destruction of Libya was a reflection of just this type of complex behind-the-scenes engineering of all these key oil, financial, military, media and political players. It’s the kind of Real News that seldom if ever hits the headlines… just because it is the Real News!
During the better part of last year until the public execution of Muhamar Gaddafi by the Western Power’s proxies inside Libya – i.e., mercenaries, criminals, thugs and CIA/MI6/Mossad agents, aka “Freedom Fighters” – the Western media repeated time and again how very bad Gaddafi had suddenly become overnight; how the poor Libyans were clamouring for “democracy”; and how the heroic Libyan “freedom fighters” based, armed, trained and financed in Benghazi were battling to “liberate” Libya and impose Clintonite “democracy” and “human rights”. Actually these “freedom fighters” overshot their runway: now that Libya is finally “free”, they’re asking for the Eastern Cyrenaica region to secede from the rest of the country.
Was civil war part of the West’s plan for Libya? Last year, after securing full UN backing via Resolution No. 1973 allowing NATO air strikes to devastate the country and impose the most violent regime change seen in recent times, NATO-backed thugs have plunged the country into chaos.
As the “Libya Business News” publication mentions on Tuesday, “About 3,000 people gathered in Benghazi last month to announce that Barca (Cyrenaica) was an autonomous region within a federal state. Barca is at the centre of Libya’s oil industry, with two thirds of production and three quarters of reserves there.” It is one of the three historic regions into which the country is divided. And while Barca has the most oil, the other two is home to two thirds of the population. So the question now is how the rich revenues from rich oil reserves will be “democratically” distributed among the population.
Adrian Salbuchi for RT

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 21 Mai 2012 01:34

Elections for a Public National Conference will be held in Libya on 19 June 2012.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_Pub ... tion,_2012
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elections_in_Libya

Libyan general election, 1965
Early general elections were held in Libya on 8 May 1965,[1] following the dissolution of parliament by King Idris after the 1964 elections.[2] As political parties were banned, all candidates ran as independents. Nevertheless, in order to ensure the victory of pro-government candidates, ballot boxes were tampered with by police.[2]

Libya under Gaddafi


National elections were indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees. The head of government was elected by the General People's Congress. The last such election was held in March 2010.
Libya's parliament consisted of a unicameral General People's Congress. Its members were elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees.
Suffrage was 18 years of age; universal and technically compulsory.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 04 Jūn 2012 16:26

Tanks, militia encircle Tripoli airport
04 June, 2012, 17:25
http://www.rt.com/news/lybia-airport-tr ... litia-952/
A Libyan militia has encircled Tripoli’s international airport, forcing flights to be rerouted to a nearby military airport, a security official reports. Tanks have been deployed to the airport as the standoff remains tense.
­A Libyan security official says the militia men occupied the airport’s runway on Monday, storming it with heaving machine guns and armored vehicles.
Another official said the group, known as the al-Awfea Brigade, is demanding the release of an imprisoned leader whom they claim disappeared last night, Reuters reports.
"The situation in the airport is very tense and tanks are surrounding the buildings. No one is allowed into the building," the anonymous official told the agency.
Thus far all flights into the airport have been diverted to Mitiga Airport, which is located 8 km east of the Libyan capital. All outbound flights have been canceled.
A spokesman for the ruling National Transitional Council said the kidnapped Awfea leader, Col. Abu Oegeila al-Hebeishi, was taken by unknown rebels while en route to Tripoli.
He was reportedly traveling from al-Awfea Brigade base of Tarhouna, a medium sized town located 65 km. south of the capital.
Tarhouna’s dominate tribe, also known as the Tarhouna, were favored by toppled Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and held many posts in the country’s military under his rule. Tarhouna locals are viewed with suspicion by former rebels who fought to topple the Gaddafi regime.
Bloody tribal clashes in the southern city of Sabha left 150 dead this past March before authorities were able to negotiate a ceasefire. The previous month, violent clashes in the southeastern district of Al Kufra claimed more than 100 lives.
Libya’s National Transitional Council (NTC) has struggled in recent times to reign in disparate tribal forces which fought on both sides of the last year’s civil war.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 21 Jūn 2012 22:16

http://www.rt.com/news/libya-tribal-clashes-war-350/
Published: 21 June, 2012, 14:43
Edited: 21 June, 2012, 22:52
Clashes between warring factions are heating up in western Libya. Tribes that once supported the country’s uprising are battling each other and pro-Gaddafi rival tribes - all against the background of freebee arms.
Press secretary of the Libyan government Nasser al-Manaa reported that clashes between three tribes from Az Zintan, Mizda and Al-Shegaiga village resulted in at least 105 deaths and more than 500 wounded just last week. The conflict reportedly flared over a strip of land repossessed by one of the tribes.
Al-Manaa revealed that the violence was stopped only after a government military presence was established in the region.
The number of dead and injured in Libya is comparable to the body count in Syria and following UN rhetoric, the ongoing violence in Libya strikingly resembles a civil (tribal) war.
Tribalism is an age-old challenge for Libya, always threatening stability and security. Former leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi had managed to curb many tribal conflicts throughout the 42 years of his rule, often by using force. When an armed tribal rebellion broke out in 2009, Gaddafi had to use Air Force to bring the rebels under control.
Supported from abroad, an uprising against Muammar Gaddafi started in February 2011. Severe fighting between rebels and Gaddafi supporters lasted till October 20, when Colonel Gaddafi was killed by a raging mob near the city of Sirte after rebels took control of the capital Tripoli.
With Gaddafi gone, the National Transitional Council that came to power is facing the same dangers as the previous regime. The NTC has to deal with restless tribes that use the unstable position of central government to seize the territories of weaker neighboring groups.
When the situation got tough, the Colonel distributed as many as one million Kalashnikov assault rifles among those who expressed at least minimum allegiance towards the regime. And that number is just a fraction of that stolen from devastated military arsenals later on.
Libya appears to be so flooded with arms right now that even the grandchildren of today’s fighters will have enough thirty-round banana clips to sort things out for years to come.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 02 Jūl 2012 18:47

Libyan tribal clashes: 47 dead in three days
http://www.rt.com/news/tribal-clashes-l ... three-135/
Tribal warfare continues for the fifth day straight in Libya, with 47 killed in the last three days alone and over 100 reportedly wounded. Ethnic strife in Libya has cost hundreds of lives since the fall of Muammar Gaddafi’s regime last October.
­The Toubou and Zawiya ethnic groups are locked in a bitter conflict to control smuggling in the Saharan oasis Kufra, a town with population of around 40,000 conveniently located in a triangle where the borders of Chad, Egypt and Sudan converge.
The fighting erupted on Wednesday. Both sides are using heavy weapons, including armored vehicles. The Toubou people claim that Zawia are shelling Toubou neighborhoods with mortars, forcing them to strike back. The Daraa Shield brigade of the Libyan army deployed in the area has not intervened in the conflict.
Wissam Ben Hamid, commander of the brigade, told AFP that "negotiations are now underway to calm tensions."
Women and children have found themselves in the crosshairs of the conflict, constituting over 50 per cent of the wounded.
The Saharan Toubou tribe and the Arab Zawiya tribe previously had a dust-up in February. Those clashes resulted in the deaths of over 100 people, with the violence only ceasing after the Libyan government dispatched troops to pacify the bellicose nomads. More than half of the population has been displaced according to the UN.
In April there were skirmishes between Toubou tribesmen and the Daraa Shield brigade.
The dark-skinned Toubou claim they faced discrimination during the Gaddafi era and that the new Libyan authorities continue a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the tribe.
Besides Libya, Toubou tribesmen also inhabit Chad, Niger and Sudan.
The tribal conflict is flaring up on the eve of the national assembly elections in Libya, which are to be held on July 7.
The tribal violence is the result of the absence of national unity in the country, London-based activist and journalist Sukant Chandan told RT.
“All those tensions all those divisions that the Gadaffi era had kind of united and kind of managed successfully have come out in the open and everyone is fighting everyone for the bit of the crumbs that NATO is throwing at them,” he explained.
Chandan also said that the demise of Gadaffi’s Libya had left the African continent defenseless against Western hegemony.

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Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 06 Jūl 2012 14:58

Libya elections: Muslim Brotherhood set to lead government
Libya's top politicians have hatched a deal that would see the Muslim Brotherhood lead the government after the country's first free elections in almost five decades takes place on Saturday.

Jamie Dettmer in Tripoli
8:30PM BST 05 Jul 2012
While the elections for a 200-member National Congress is unlikely to grant a majority to any one faction, the Muslim Brotherhood and its Islamist allies are confident they can join their counterparts in Tunisia and Egypt at the helm of leadership.
Negotiations between the Muslim Brotherhood and a secular-based political movement led by former interim prime minister Mahmoud Jibril have focused on forming a post-election government as soon as the result is known.
An adviser to Mr Jibril said the former prime minister was likely to take the post of figurehead president with Mustafa Abu Shagour, currently interim deputy prime minister of the Muslim Brotherhood, taking the prime minister's slot as head of government.
The Muslim Brotherhood would dominate the ministries.
In the run-up to the elections, Libya's interim government has struggled to maintain law and order.
A threatened electoral boycott by federalists in Benghazi, the second city, has rattled Libya's rebels turned leaders. Leading figures fear that large numbers in the city that triggered the rebellion against Muammar Gaddafi may shun the polls, undermining the legitimacy of the election.
Recent attacks on foreign diplomats in Benghazi by Jihadists, a series of ugly micro-conflicts between militias in the Nafousa mountains leaving 105 dead and 300 wounded in the last fortnight and fierce clashes between Arabs, Tebu tribesmen and Tuaregs in the south have put the country on edge.
"We need to ensure stronger and more capable leadership soon after the elections," said a senior official in the Muslim Brotherhood's Justice and Construction Party. "That is what Libyans want – more security and stability and progress being made to improve their day-to-day lives. They don't want deadlock."
Any coalition government would grant a prominent place to the al-Watan party of Abdulhakim Belhaj, sources said. Mr Belhaj acknowledged that the talks were under way. He said: "I negotiate with anyone who cares about Libya and wants to unite it."
The presence of Mr Belhaj in a Libyan government would complicate relations between Tripoli and London.
Mr Belhaj, the former commandant of the now dissolved terrorist outfit, Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, which had ties with al-Qaeda before disavowing violence, is suing the British government for approving his 2004 rendition to Gaddafi's regime.
Libya is using a complicated electoral system designed to ensure that no party sweeps the board in the elections for the assembly, which will oversee the new government and draw up a constitution.
One hundred and twenty seats are reserved for individuals – 2,501 candidates are challenging for those – and 80 seats will be allotted according to party lists. There are 1,206 party candidates.
But Islamic parties are likely to predominate, experts believe.
"I'd be surprised if Islamists, from the Brotherhood and other parties, don't secure most of the seats and a great chunk of the vote," says Dartmouth University professor Dirk Vandewalle, who's been advising the UN mission here.
The outgoing National Transitional Council, which has ruled Libya since Gaddafi's fall, announced yesterday that Islamic Sharia law should be the "main" source of legislation and that this principle should not be subject to a referendum.
"The Libyan people are attached to Islam, as a religion and legislation ... As such the National Transitional Council recommends that the (next) congress make Sharia the main source of legislation," Saleh Daroub, NTC spokesman, said.
Some secular Libyans fear the Brotherhood rising influence, despite promises from the Justice and Construction Party that it won't seek to impose religious views through control of the bureaucracy.
"If the Brotherhood gets in we will see a repeat of what's happening in Tunisia with underhand pressure on women to cover up and raids on art galleries," warns Majid Wanis-Gaddafi, the son of Libya's last prime minister before Gaddafi seized power in 1968.
The main storage centre for election materials in the eastern Libyan town of Ajdabiya was set on fire late Thursday night. The ballot papers for the town were burnt. The election commission is trying to print replacements in time for the polls.
Hundreds of protesters stormed the election commission's office in Benghazi last Sunday, ransacking files and smashing computer equipment. If they had managed to destroy ballot papers or voter lists, they could have derailed the election.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldne ... nment.html

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Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 06 Jūl 2012 15:04

Oil terminals in east Libya 'forced to shut'
By Jay Deshmukh (AFP) – 13 hours ago
RAS LANUF, Libya — Armed federalists forced two oil terminals in east Libya to halt production, sources said, days ahead of the first elections since a popular uprising toppled the regime of Moamer Kadhafi.
"The harbour is closed... The pumping and loading of oil has been stopped... The group that came were federalists," said Tumi Shakari, a supervisor at a major oil terminal in the port town of Ras Lanuf.
The action follows threats from a pro-federalism movement to boycott and sabotage the July 7 poll, the first since last year's uprising.
"A group of 15 people came around 9:30 pm (1930 GMT) and in a very peaceful and amicable manner asked us to shut down operations," the supervisor added.
"This group has certain demands that they want to see fulfilled and they have asked us to stop our work for 48 hours," he continued, adding that workers had to decided to comply to avoid an escalation.
"We are waiting for orders from the National Oil Corporation," he said.
A witness said the armed men had arrived in national army vehicles.
One of the central demands of the federalist movement is an equal allocation of seats in the 200-member national assembly which will be elected on Saturday.
The interim authorities, on the basis of demographic considerations, gave 100 seats to the west, 60 to the east and 40 to the south.
Ibrahim al-Jadhran, a protest leader, said demonstrators had also shut the port of Al-Sidra, 35 kilometres (20 miles) west of Ras Lanuf, and were heading eastbound to the oil terminal of Brega.
Tareq al-Tahi, senior superintendent at Al-Sidra, confirmed that the terminal had been shut.
We have been forced to stop production," he told an AFP reporter on site.
"At 7:30 pm (1730 GMT) a group of people came to us in armoured vehicles loaded with anti-aircraft guns and asked us to stop producing oil and loading cargo," Tahi added.
"The situation is the same in Ras Lanuf, Brega, and Haruj (near Ras Lanuf)."
Production of several oil companies are routed from the port of Ras Lanuf, including Libya's AGOCO (55,000 bpd), German company Wintershall (70,000 bpd) and Al-Haruj (80,000 bpd), according to industry experts.
The oil terminal complex of Ras Lanuf lies 360 kilometres (225 miles) west of the eastern city of Benghazi, cradle of the revolt that ousted Kadhafi, who was captured and killed last October.
Libya's oil production is up to 1.55 million barrel per day, nearing pre-war levels, according to government officials.
A former rebel manning a checkpoint on the coastal highway said: "We closed the terminal because we want our demands to be fulfilled. This is an issue of seat allocations."
Earlier on Thursday, arsonists set fire to a depot holding electoral material in the eastern city of Ajdabiya, which lies between Benghazi and Brega on the Mediterranean.
And armed federalists backers on July 1 ransacked offices of the electoral commission in Benzghazi raising concerns that the vote could be disrupted by such groups.

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Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 27 Jūl 2012 15:56

Libya Could Return to Pre-war Oil Output by October
27/07/2012 13:12:00
http://www.tripolipost.com/articledetail.asp?c=1&i=8884
Soon, three weeks after its first free election, Libya will have a legitimate government in place and the country is expected to return to full normality with most sectors of the economy, that drives a country fully operational. The country's oil industry is expected to be one of the first to get back on its feet with oil production expected to be back to pre-war levels within less than three months, in October.
This revival is a bit later than predicted. However, tin the words of Libya's deputy oil minister, Omar Shakmak, this was mainly due to interruptions and the slow return of oil services firms to the country.
Mr Shakmak has reportedly told Reuters that output has climbed back close to pre-war levels of 1.6 million barrels per day (bpd) since a virtual standstill during last year's uprising that ousted Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi from power. But protests and interruptions have dealt the sector several setbacks.
Mr Shakmak has said that, "If everything goes as planned and there are no more interruptions,” he thinks that within three months time Libya hopes to achieve the 1.6 (million bpd).
"Our plan was for by the end of July, the second quarter, but there are a lot of reasons - one of them the interruptions ... and also the delay of the support from oil technical service contractors. They are not back 100 percent," he said.
The deputy oil minister went on to say that current output was 1.56 million bpd, climbing back up after three major oil exporting terminals in the east, El-Sider, Ras Lanuf and Brega, shut down by political protests before Libya's July 7 elections, restarted.
Local militia had enforced a 48-hour stoppage to protest against the election of a national assembly they complained did not adequately represent Libya's eastern region. The stoppages shut half of Libya's oil exporting capacity and production was also cut by 300,000 bpd as a result of blockages at the terminals.
"Interruptions will affect the achievement of the objectives," Mr Shakmak said. "No one can guarantee this can't happen again but we should do our best to avoid it."
While foreign oil companies have returned to the country, services contractors have not been as fast as they await a clearer political and legal landscape after the polls.
Going forward, Libya plans to boost production which could reach 2 million barrels by end-2015, Shakmak said. "We're talking about the capacity of the production but the plan is that we should be able to have such production," he told Reuters
He said there were also study proposals to upgrade the country's refineries and build two new ones.
He said that a plan was being discussed for the development of the refinery industry in Libya, both upgrading the existing refineries and to have new refineries. "They will study where we will have these two refineries - maybe in east, in the Tobruk area and Derna and the other one in the south."
He hopes that the Ras Lanuf refinery, the largest in country, run by a joint venture between Libya's National Oil Corporation and the Emirates-based Al Ghurair group, would restart soon. It can process 220,000 bpd accounts for well over half of Libya's oil refining capacity.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 06 Aug 2012 09:17

Libyan troops kill suspected terrorists behind bomb plots
http://www.france24.com/en/20120806-lib ... -bomb-plot
REUTERS - Libyan security forces on Sunday killed three armed men suspected of being behind seven failed bomb plots, a state spokesman said, in the first incident of its kind since the fall of Muammar Gaddafi in October.
Several violent incidents have rocked Libya in recent days and on Sunday the International Committee of the Red Cross announced it was suspending its activity in the country's second biggest city after one of its compounds was attacked with grenades and rockets.
Security forces surprised the three armed men inside a farm near Aziziya, 25 miles (40 km) south of Tripoli, in possession of the same kind of explosives used in seven previous bomb plots, said Saleh Darhoub, spokesman of the National Transitional Council.
Five members of the security forces were wounded during the clash, Darhoub told reporters without giving details on the nature of the targets, which he described as "vital", or saying whether there were possible links between the armed men and recent explosions.
On Saturday, a car bomb exploded near the offices of the military police in Tripoli, three days after a strong explosion rocked military intelligence offices in the eastern city of Benghazi.
On Sunday, a security source blamed the car bombing, which slightly wounded a Tunisian national, on a personal vendetta.
On Tuesday, seven Iranian relief workers were abducted in Benghazi by a group of armed men. The aid workers had just started a mission in the country as guests of the Libyan Red Crescent Association.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 27 Sep 2012 12:09

Libyan rebel who captured Gaddafi dies in Paris

Omran Shaaban, one of the Libyan rebels credited with capturing Muammar Gaddafi in October 2011, has died from gunshot wounds in a Paris hospital. Questions abound about the circumstances surrounding Shaaban’s death.
By Charlotte BOITIAUX (text)

He rose to fame as the man who discovered Muammar Gaddafi hiding in a drain pipe near the Libyan city of Sirte in October 2011. But less than a year later, Omran Shaaban was dead in a Paris hospital. Shaaban had succumbed to injuries sustained allegedly at the hands of Gaddafi loyalists after being kidnapped.
The 22-year-old aspiring electrician was given a hero’s funeral in his hometown of Misrata late Tuesday. But in death, the Libyan hero has exposed the deep divides that still threaten his country.
Shaaban was only 21 when he accomplished what so many other Libyan rebels dreamed of doing at the time: capturing the Libyan dictator who had been on the run since rebel forces seized the capital of Tripoli in August 2011.
Shortly after Gaddafi was captured, Shaaban appeared in several videos touting the Libyan dictator’s personal revolver. He was widely believed to be among the rebels who tortured and mortally injured Gaddafi.
The young Libyan died on Tuesday in a Paris hospital as a result of gunshot wounds, said a spokesman for the French foreign ministry.
“Omran Shaaban came to France in early September on what we call a humanitarian visa to receive emergency medical treatment,” the spokesman said, declining to comment on the decision to choose France as a destination. “He did not survive his injuries and died Monday night.”

Shot and detained

Shaaban’s death has raised the prospect of even more violence and score-settling in Libya, a country awash with arms that has lingering pockets of support for the old regime.
According to Shaaban’s family, the young man was kidnapped in July near Bani Walid, a western Libyan town that remains a Gaddafi stronghold.
While attempting to escape his captors, Shaaban was shot in the neck and stomach, but survived. His family says Shabaan was held and tortured for 50 days before a personal intervention by Mohammed Magarief, the president of Libya’s National Assembly, secured his release earlier this month.
Shaaban was then flown to France for emergency medical treatment. On Tuesday night, his body was flown to Misrata, where more than 10,000 people joined a procession to a soccer stadium for the funeral.

Are Libya's leaders finally standing up to the militias?

Libyan authorities have so far offered no information about who kidnapped one of the heroes of the Libyan uprising. However, lawmakers have ordered the defence and interior ministries to track down those who abducted Shaaban, calling him a "brave hero".
Nearly a year after Gaddafi’s capture, the security situation in Libya remains tenuous despite government efforts to unify often rival militias into a national security force. The issue came to the forefront earlier this month after residents in the eastern Libyan city of Benghazi stormed the strongholds of Islamist militias demanding their demobilisation. The operation was sparked by the September 11 killing of US Ambassador Chris Stevens.
Tensions between Misrata, a city that saw some of the worst fighting during the 2011 uprising, and the rival town of Bani Walid have also escalated in recent months.
In an interview with the AFP, Shaaban’s brother, Walid, demanded justice for his brother’s death. "We will take revenge militarily - but legitimately," said Walid, who commands a militia brigade. "We will give the authorities an opportunity to tackle the issue but if they fail to act, we know how to make our move."
http://www.france24.com/en/20120926-lib ... zi-shaaban

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Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 03 Okt 2012 14:54

Reports that French agent killed Gaddafi ‘nonsense’

A French intelligence expert has poured cold water on allegations that a French agent killed Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi after making a deal with Syria to save then-President Nicolas Sarkozy from embarrassing campaign-funding revelations.
http://www.france24.com/en/20121001-rep ... -el-obeidi
Reports that Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi was killed by a French operative after Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad sold vital intelligence to Paris are “patent nonsense”, according to a leading French intelligence expert.
Mahmoud Jibril, who led Libya’s first post-Gaddafi government in 2011, told Egyptian television channel Dream TV last week that “a foreign agent infiltrated the [rebel] Revolutionary Brigades in order to kill Gaddafi.”
Jibril now heads the National Forces Alliance, one of Libya’s largest political groups, as the country works to produce a constitution ahead of elections expected in 2013.
Following his interview, Italian daily Corriere della Sera quoted unnamed Western diplomats saying that if Gaddafi had been killed by a foreign agent, “he would almost certainly have been French.”
These diplomatic sources went on to explain that the then French President, Nicolas Sarkozy, wanted the Libyan strongman out of the way after he threatened to reveal large cash donations to Sarkozy’s 2007 presidential campaign.
Meanwhile on Sunday, the UK's Daily Telegraph quoted former Libyan rebel intelligence chief Rami el-Obeidi saying that the Syrian government had sold Gaddafi’s satellite telephone number to French intelligence services, allowing them to track Gaddafi’s every move.
El-Obeidi told the newspaper that Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad, himself battling a growing rebellion at home, had cooperated with Paris in exchange for an easing of pressure on his regime amid an increasingly brutal crackdown that was rapidly escalating into civil war.
“In exchange for this information, Assad obtained a promise of grace from the French and less political pressure on his regime,” said el-Obeidi, who was head of Libyan rebel intelligence until he fell from grace after the mysterious death of General Abdel Fattah Younes, the commander of rebel forces fighting the Gaddafi regime, in July 2011.

‘Exclusively French’ operation

According to NATO’s official version of events that led to Gaddafi’s killing, an RAF aircraft spotted a convoy leaving the dictator’s home town Sirte in October 2011.
Officially unaware who was travelling in that convoy, NATO planes bombed it anyway, and Gaddafi was found by rebel fighters hiding in a nearby drainpipe. He was killed, apparently by his captors, as he was being taken away.
According to el-Obeidi, the operation to target and kill him was “exclusively French” despite the presence of Turkish and British SAS special forces in the vicinity.
“French intelligence played a direct role in the death of Gaddafi, including his killing,” he said.
However, according to French defence analyst and former intelligence officer Eric Dénécé, none of these allegations – especially that Syria had given Paris Gaddafi’s satellite phone number in return for leniency - add up.
Pointing out that in November 2011 France’s stance towards Syria actually toughened, with Paris being the first country to recognise the rebel Syrian National Council, Dénécé told FRANCE 24 the allegations were “a hoax - patent nonsense.”
“France did not need Syria’s help to track Gaddafi and Assad would certainly not have sold his telephone number in such a way,” said the former intelligence officer who now heads the French Centre for Intelligence Research (CF2R).
Neither Mahmoud Jibril nor el-Obeidi was a credible spokesperson, he said, accusing both of trying to dominate the media spotlight as Libya’s new leadership and government takes shape.
“Frankly, it was never going to be allegations of campaign financing from Gaddafi that would bring Sarkozy down,” he added. “This would not be a strong enough motive to order his assassination.”
FRANCE 24 contacted the French defence ministry, which refused to make any comment on the reports
.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 04 Nov 2012 18:26

Clashes in Tripoli as militiamen torch security HQ

Fierce clashes erupted between rival government-sanctioned militia groups in Libya’s capital Tripoli on Sunday, injuring at least five people, as militiamen torched a security headquarters in the centre of the city, looting it and a number of shops.

Rival state-sanctioned Libyan militias fired guns and rocket-propelled grenades at each in the Libyan capital on Sunday, leaving the police powerless to protect locals.
At least five people were wounded and a stray bullet entered a hospital, causing panic and increasing concerns about Libya’s precarious security situation a year after the ouster of Muammar Gaddafi.

http://www.france24.com/en/20121104-lib ... ed-looting

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 23 Apr 2013 10:50

23/04/2013
Car bomb attack on French embassy in Libya
France’s embassy in Libya was hit by a car bomb early on Tuesday morning, injuring two guards and causing serious damage to the building.
“The French authorities will do everything in their power to shed light on the circumstances surrounding this heinous attack,” French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said in a statement on Tuesday.
Two security officials speaking on condition of anonymity to AP said that the motive for the attack was not immediately clear.
Authorities in Tripoli called the blast a “terrorist act,” according to AFP.
The impact of the explosion severely damaged two villas and two cars parked near the building, while the windows of a shop 200 metres away were blown out.
http://www.france24.com/en/20130423-fre ... d-car-bomb

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Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 25 Aug 2013 11:13

23/08/2013 / LIBYA
Ancient Libyan necropolis threatened by real estate speculators
Local residents recently destroyed part of the Cyrene necropolis, an ancient Greek city in north-eastern Libya, to make way for houses and shops. Our Observer, an archaeology professor, laments the authorities’ unwillingness to act to prevent the destruction of this invaluable archaeological heritage.
Cyrene dates back to about 700 B.C. and was the oldest and largest Greek colony in eastern Libya, a region now known as Cyrenaica. Of the city’s former glory remains an enormous necropolis — nearly 10 square kilometres in size — used between 600 and 400 B.C. The necropolis includes 1,200 burial vaults dug into the bedrock and thousands of individual sarcophagi that lie on the ground.
Even though the city is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, local farmers have laid claim to certain parts of the necropolis and recently destroyed a section with the help of excavators in order to make way for new houses.

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Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 17 Sep 2013 21:50

Libya prepares for its trial of the decade
Government refused to hand Muammar Gaddafi's son and spymaster over to international criminal court for war crimes
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/s ... fi-senussi?
It is Libya's trial of the decade, the playboy scion and the sinister spymaster facing their accusers in a case that promises to lift the lid on both the horrors and the excesses of the former regime.
Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, son of former ruler Muammar Gaddafi, and Abdullah al-Senussi will go on trial on Thursday facing a litany of charges and possible death penalties if found guilty. But the case has also put the new, precarious Libya itself on trial as it defies the international criminal court, which has ordered that the pair be transferred to The Hague.
Officials are eager to reassure the world that Libya will be able to stage a fair trial and is justified in wanting to mete out justice to its own, rather than handing over the pair to face international justice. "We will not have Mickey Mouse trials under this government," the justice minister, Salah Marghani, told the Guardian. "We had Mickey Mouse trials in the past and we saw the results. We had trials in sports stadiums and town squares with terrible results."
Yet the authorities have been unable even to bring Gaddafi to Tripoli from western Libya, where rebels captured him in November 2011.
The government has failed to persuade the city of Zintan's powerful militia to hand Gaddafi over, and he will not appear alongside Senussi and 28 other former regime officials on Thursday.
For three decades Senussi was Muammar Gaddafi's chief enforcer, accused of oppression at home and terrorism abroad. Senussi, 63, shared the Bedouin and army background of his boss and was chief hatchet-man to one of the world's most brutal and idiosyncratic regimes. In official photographs of the flamboyant dictator, Senussi's heavy, dark face is a constant feature, characteristically standing off-camera, eyes scanning the crowd.
Married to Muammar Gaddafi's sister-in-law, Senussi oversaw an oppression that revelled in public displays of brutality. Sport stadiums were used to stage mass executions that were broadcast on live television.
The brutality was the signature of a regime that ruled by terror. One film, viewed by the Guardian, shows a political opponent being beaten to death in one of the ruler's compounds by a swarm of soldiers, each competing to land the most savage blows. The man is shown being dragged through the throng, one soldier pushing through the crowd, brandishing a knife for the camera, which he uses to hack at the victim.
Senussi is most reviled for one particular crime, the massacre of 1,200 political prisoners at Tripoli's Abu Salim prison in 1996, which witnesses say he personally supervised.
Azerdin Madani, jailed at Abu Salim in the 1980s for his part in a failed assassination attempt against Muammar Gaddafi, remembered Senussi patrolling the corridors: "He was responsible for all that happened there, all bad things. He was the worst. When he was walking outside [the cells], you would know, you would feel the shiver along your back."
Madani suffered torture and near-starvation at the hands of Senussi's jailers, but says: "I want to see him have a proper trial; he should have justice. I want him to see that this is the difference between his way and ours."
Abroad, Senussi is linked to a wave of killings, including the 1984 shooting of British PC Yvonne Fletcher and the Lockerbie bombing; France has already convicted him in absentia over the destruction of a French airliner over the Sahara in 1989.
The case against Gaddafi opens a very different box – that of the excesses and wild years of the former ruler's children. After Tony Blair ushered in the end of international sanctions on Libya by meeting his father in 2004, Gaddafi, 41, moved to a luxurious mansion in Hampstead, London, to enjoy the high life.
Slim and boisterous, he numbered Lord Mandelson, financier Nathaniel Rothschild and Prince Albert of Monaco among his friends. The royal family entertained him at Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle. The London School of Economics awarded him a controversial doctorate after a charity foundation he controlled donated £1.5m to the university.
Gaddafi was also an intermediary in his father's foreign dealings, arranging with British authorities the return in 2008 of the convicted Lockerbie bomber Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and giving big oil concessions to BP shortly afterwards.
In the early days, Gaddafi portrayed himself as a reformer. That vanished with the coming of war, when he famously wagged his finger at rebels on state television. That finger is now missing; Gaddafi insists it was severed by a Nato bomb as he fled Tripoli at the end of the revolution.
Prosecutors say both men will face a four-page charge sheet featuring crimes from the time of the civil war and the dictatorship that preceded it.
But with the country fragmenting amid spiralling violence, many wonder whether Libya can hold an effective trial. Gaddafi's ICC-appointed lawyer, John Jones QC, called for this week's trial to be cancelled. He told the Guardian: "None of the prerequisites for a fair trial are in place."
Earlier this month, a unit of gendarmerie kidnapped Senussi's daughter, Anoud, from the custody of justice ministry police in Tripoli, underlining the government's inability to control its own security forces.
Human rights groups say the kidnapping puts a question mark over Libya's ability to hold a fair trial. "The abduction of Senussi's daughter sends a very chilly message on the threats to potential witnesses," said Richard Dicker, director of Human Rights Watch's international justice programme in New York. "The stakes for Libya are very high, in terms of projecting, in this trial, that the rule of law is being applied."
Libya's decision to go ahead with the trial may also see the patience of ICC judges snap.
Since Gaddafi and Senussi were captured, The Hague has repeatedly castigated the Libyan authorities for failing to hand over both men to face charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Last year ICC official Melinda Taylor was detained for several weeks by Zintan militia after trying to visit Gaddafi.
Holding a trial in defiance of ICC rulings may see the court complain to the UN security council, which ordered the Libya investigations two years ago.
Back then, Libya's rebels were desperate for international support for their uprising, requesting the UN to order the ICC into action. Now, a more confident government insists neither man will be sent to The Hague.
Marghani said he hoped the ICC would be patient with Libya, emphasising that all would depend on whether the world sees a fair trial. "It is very important for the Libyans now that all the conditions of a fair trial are met. It is how we will be judged by history," he said.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 28 Dec 2013 06:08

WASHINGTON (AP) — The State Department says the Libyan government is holding four U.S. military personnel.

State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki says officials are trying to determine what occurred.
Psaki said Friday night that the United States is in touch with Libyan officials to ensure the Americans' release.
The U.S Embassy in Tripoli includes a security detail. The embassy's personnel are restricted in their movements in Libya.

WASHINGTON (AP) — Four U.S. military personnel investigating potential evacuation routes in Libya were taken into custody at a checkpoint and then detained briefly by the Libyan government before being released, a U.S. official said Friday night.
No one was injured. The military personnel were taken to the U.S. Embassy after their release, a Defense Department official said. The official was not authorized to discuss the incident by name and requested anonymity.
The four were supporting U.S. Marine security forces protecting the American Embassy, the official said. They were likely U.S. special operations forces, which have been deployed to Libya.
An altercation apparently took place at a checkpoint near the town of Sabratha, the official said. Reports of gunfire could not be confirmed.
After they were detained at the checkpoint, the Americans were transferred to the Ministry of the Interior and held for a few hours, the official said.
The U.S. Embassy in Tripoli includes a security detail. The embassy's personnel are restricted in their movements in Libya.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 05 Feb 2014 12:51

Libya destroys last of Gaddafi’s chemical weapons

Latest update : 2014-02-05
Libya has destroyed its last known large stockpile of chemical weapons from the era of slain leader Muammar Gaddafi, including bombs and artillery shells filled with mustard gas, officials said on Tuesday.
“Libya is totally empty of any presence of chemical weapons ... which could pose a threat to the safety of people, the environment, or neighbouring regions,” Foreign Minister Mohammed Abdelaziz said in remarks carried by Libya’s state news agency.
The eradication of the weapons marks an important development for Libya, as Syria struggles to destroy its own chemical weapons hoard amid a civil war.
Western countries had been concerned that the weapons might fall into the hands of Islamist militants and regional militias as the North African state grapples with widespread disorder more than two years after the uprising that ousted Gaddafi.
Militia groups and armed tribesmen control parts of the vast OPEC-member country awash with arms, where the Tripoli government of Prime Minister Ali Zeidan has struggled to enforce its authority beyond the capital, Tripoli.

Western help

Abdelaziz told reporters that Canadian, German and American experts had helped destroy the chemical weapons stockpile at a facility some 370 miles (600 kilometres) south of the capital.
“The destruction in the region of al-Rawagha was conducted with utmost precision,” he said.
Libyan officials at the news conference said there were no other known batches of chemical weapons left. Andrew Weber, the US assistant defence secretary for nuclear, chemical and biological defence programmes, said that among the Libyan chemical stocks destroyed were 507 shells filled with mustard gas.
Libya began dismantling its poison gas programme after signing the Chemical Weapons Convention in 2004 but the operation ground to a halt in 2011 when the NATO-backed uprising against Gaddafi broke out.
Gaddafi’s government originally declared 25 metric tonnes of bulk mustard agent and 1,400 metric tons of precursor chemicals used to make poison gas munitions. It also declared more than 3,500 unfilled aerial bombs designed for use with chemical warfare agents such as sulphur mustard, and three chemical weapons production facilities.
At the time, Gaddafi was trying to shed his image as an international outcast and restore relations with Western governments following the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, which was justified as a move to eliminate Saddam Hussein’s alleged weapons of mass destruction.

‘Major undertaking’

The director of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which assists countries in verifiably destroying their chemical weapons, said the task in Libya had been a “major undertaking”.
The work was done in “arduous, technically challenging circumstances,” OPCW Director-General Ahmet Uzumcu said in a statement, crediting cooperation between Libya and his own organisation, as well as help from Germany and the US.
Preparations will now be made to destroy Libya’s remaining precursor chemicals by the end of 2016.
Meanwhile in Syria, the disarmament operation agreed to in December by Damascus – under threat of Western military action – is running seriously behind schedule.
So far just two small shipments have left the Syrian port of Latakia, accounting for less than four percent of the country's declared arsenal of most dangerous chemicals and none of the precursors.
US Secretary of State John Kerry warned Syrian President Bashar al-Assad on Friday that his regime could face consequences for failing to live up to international agreements on removing chemical weapons.
(FRANCE 24 with REUTERS, AP, AFP)

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