Lībija (2011)

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 17 Feb 2012 11:26

Groundhog year: Cooking Syria ‘Libya-style’
Libya is marking the first anniversary of the revolution that brought the country plenty of destruction, but not as much democracy. And while NATO denies intentions to interfere with Syria, Libyans have learned the hard way “freedom” is exported.
­NATO has 'no intention’ 2.0

­"NATO has no intention whatsoever to intervene in Syria. We appreciate very much all the efforts to find a solution to the conflict in Syria. I appreciate the work of the Arab League. I do believe that a regional solution has to be found," NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said in Brussels on Wednesday.

It would be easy to take these words at face value, if less than a year ago Fogh Rasmussen did not declare that NATO would not intervene in the conflict between Muammar Gaddafi and the Libyan opposition:

"I would like to stress that NATO has no plans to intervene [into Libya] and we have not received any request," he said in February 2011.

The Libyan recipe is being followed with utmost care, down to the tiniest detail. Washington has already come up with calls for "Friends of a democratic Syria" to unite and rally against the government of President Bashar Al-Assad.

The club has every chance of growing into a new iteration of the “Friends of Libya,” which oversaw international help for opponents of late, deposed Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. Moreover, the group coordinated NATO military operations to protect Libyan civilians, something that is not envisioned in Syria – for now.
­Excellent investment vs. Humanitarian mission

Still, humanitarian and peacekeeping rhetoric around Syria is reaching a boiling point, and many cannot get rid of an unpleasant feeling of déjà vu. During the uprising in Libya, the UN and NATO dashed to the country to end “crimes against humanity,” but with the very beginning of the military operation, many wondered at the sudden zest for human rights.

“You have to find a political and economic interest before you start believing in humanitarian reasons. In all humanitarian interventions there is another reason that is much more important,” science professor at Paris West University Nanterre La Defense Pierre Guerlain told RT.

In Libya’s case, no sooner had UN resolution 1973 on the “no-fly zone” been adopted, than the National Transitional Council (NTC) approached the French leadership with a tempting offer. France was to get 35 per cent of Libya’s oil sector in exchange for “full and constant support” of the NTC in its fight against Muammar Gaddafi, reported France’s Liberation newspaper.

British author and Guardian journalist Simon Jenkins says that access to oil and the Mediterranean were the real causes of the Libyan war.

“There are mixed motives in all these interventions. We tend to intervene in countries where we have some interests – in this case oil,” he told RT.

Another lucrative option for Western powers was pricey rebuilding contracts. First, bombs tore Libya apart, and later Western companies got paid to put the country back together. According to the UK Department of Trade and Investment, the value of contracts to rebuild Libya in areas ranging from electricity and water supplies to healthcare and education, could amount to upwards of US $300 billion over the next 10 years.

The game in Syria seems more complicated, as the country is but a modest producer of oil and gas. The Arab Gas Pipeline, which exports Egyptian natural gas to Jordan, Lebanon and Israel, might be of some regional interest. But even after the pipeline is expanded to Turkey, Iraq and Iran, its importance will hardly be global.

Targeting Damascus may be a geopolitical tool employed against Iran in the regional power reshuffle. A revival of Iran’s empire casts worries on Turkey and Qatar, and with Tehran’s growing influence over post-war Iraq and Afghanistan, an attack on Assad’s regime, a close Iranian ally, seems only too logical.

“Damascus is to be persecuted not exactly for repressing the opposition, but because it is unwilling to sever ties with Tehran,” the head of the Russian national security council, Nikolay Patrushev, told Kommersant newspaper.
­Western troops out – off with democracy?

NATO, taking control of the Libyan operation on March 31, 2011, interpreted the UN resolution the way it saw fit. Under the flag of “protecting civilians,” the alliance quickly focused on getting rid of Muammar Gaddafi and his regime, and propping up a government, which is now more or less in power.

In late October, Gaddafi was assassinated in his hometown of Sirte, an event videotaped and broadcasted by media around the world. This brought the fighting to an end, and NATO was quick to declare their campaign in the country as one of the “most successful in NATO history.”

Given all that, what is to become of Syria if the West chooses to bring democracy there as well? The opposition Syrian National Council has already offered Gaddafi’s fate to President Assad and his family.

Three months into a relative peace in Libya, the circumstances surrounding Muammar Gaddafi’s death remain a mystery. Armed groups still answer to no central authority in NATO’s newly-liberated Libya, and refuse to give up their arms.

On February 16, the UN General Assembly passed the new draft resolution on Syria calling for President Assad to step down and demanding a transition to democratic rule.

­Elena Ostroumova, Elena Medvedeva, RT

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 21 Feb 2012 14:22

Massive ex-Gaddafi weapons cache turns up in Algeria
Published: 21 February, 2012, 02:10
Two caches with 43 anti-aircraft missiles and other weaponry have been unveiled in Algeria. Local security forces say the arsenal was smuggled in from Libya and buried near the border.
­The two caches were found near the town of In Amenas, in southern Algeria on the Libyan border. That is according to Algerian daily El Watan, which cited on Monday an unnamed security official. One cache contained Russian 9K338 Igla-S (NATO reporting name SA-24 Grinch) and 9K32 Strela-2 (SA-7 Grail) shoulder-fired surface-to-air missile systems – all taken from the arsenals of Libya’s former leader, the late Muammar Gaddafi.
No official Algerian response has followed. It is reported, though, that information of the contraband came from Libyan arms smugglers whose business was stopped last year by Algerian forces. As part of a security plan initiated jointly with Niger and Mali, Algerian authorities succeeded in blocking about thirty infiltration routes used by traffickers and terrorists. In 2011, the security services had arrested 87 Libyans who smuggled weapons from their country into Algeria.
Algeria is not the only country that sounded an alarm about intensive arms trafficking on its borders. The black market for arms has inundated many other African states with munitions from Libya, says Russia’s special envoy to Africa Mikhail Margelov.
“I recently visited Nigeria, Mali, Mauritania and Morocco, and for these four countries what is happening in the desert is a real nightmare,” he told RT in January. “One of the tribal leaders said to me, what happened in Libya undermined the market. I asked, ‘What market?’ He said, ‘Today, a Soviet or Chinese-made MANPAD [man-portable surface-to-air missile] costs the price of two Kalashnikovs.' It’s a real problem, because arms trafficking can end up somewhere in the south of Africa or somewhere in the south of Europe.”
It is estimated that Gaddafi’s arsenals numbered some 20,000 of such missiles – the largest among non-producing countries. The main fear here is that all this deadly cargo can now be easily smuggled out of Libya by various terrorist groups, including local branches of Al-Qaeda, and then used to attack civil aviation targets anywhere in the world.
Thousands of missiles are already believed to have gone missing when Libyan rebels toppled Muammar Gaddafi and helped themselves to government stockpiles.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 22 Feb 2012 16:05

No rest for Libya: Over 130 killed in tribal clashes
Published: 22 February, 2012, 03:14
More than 130 people have been killed in fighting between two tribes in Libya’s remote south-eastern area. This comes as NTC forces struggle to secure full control over Libya following the fall of the Gaddafi regime.
Some 113 people from the Toubu tribe and 23 from the Zwai tribe have been killed in the remote town of Kufra in the Sahara Desert, tribal sources told Agence-France-Presse on Tuesday.
The ruling NTC has so far not intervened. "We tried calling the NTC but they have not responded," the chief of the Toubu tribe told AFP.
"We have been under siege for a week. Since the start of the clashes, 113 people from our side have been killed, including six children," said Issa Abdelmajid, chief of the Toubu tribe, which fought Muammar Gaddafi’s forces during last year’s uprising. He added that 241 members of his tribe had been injured.
A spokesperson for the Zwai tribe confirmed 23 deaths and said that 53 people from their side had been wounded. Yunus Zwai added that the opposing tribe has the support of outside forces.
“People from the Toubu tribe are being helped by foreign elements from Chad and Sudan. We have arrested several Chadian and Sudanese fighters,” Yunus Zwai, spokesman for Kufra local council, told AFP.
The clashes are undermining the NTC’s efforts to maintain the country’s unity after the removal of the regime of Colonel Gaddafi. In January, forces opposed to the NTC managed to retake the former Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 01 Mar 2012 15:28

Extraordinary threat? Obama prolongs Libyan sanctions
Gaddafi’s gone but the Libyan threat remains. That is what President Obama thinks anyway as he told congress the sanctions his administration slapped on Libya in 2011 will remain in place for another year.
­Obama informed US Congress via letter on Thursday that the continuing threat posed by family members of the slain Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi constituted a lingering threat to US interests.
“The situation in Libya continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States,” he wrote.
“We are in the process of winding down the sanctions in response to the many positive developments in
Libya, including the fall of Gaddafi and his government,” Obama further stated.
But Obama remains adamant that remnants of Gaddafi’s family present a clear and present danger to the US.
“We need to protect against this threat and the diversion of assets or other abuse by certain members of Gaddafi’s family and other former regime officials.”
He then concluded that it is “necessary to continue the national emergency with respect to Libya.”
Obama first declared a national emergency over Libya at the outset of the bloody uprising last February in response to perceived threats by Gaddafi to US national security and foreign policy.
National emergency regulations grant the US president the power to impose sanctions on foreign countries.
In December the US and UN Security Council lifted most of the sanctions which had been imposed on Libya, a move which subsequently freed up $30 billion in frozen assets.
But since the US-NATO campaign ousted the former Libyan leader last October, the current threat to most Libyans has little connection to the remnants of the Gaddafi era.
Widespread reports of torture and other human rights abuses at the hands of both the new regime and various tribal militias have highlighted the anarchic nature of post-Gaddafi Libya.
And last Monday, local residents drove pro-government forces out of Bani Walid in response to regular abuses committed by former rebel fighters.
In light of the situation on the ground, it remains curious that President Obama would see elements of the former regime as posing the greatest security threat to US interests.
For the Libyan people, many of the forces currently unleashing chaos across the country are seemingly the very ones President Obama helped bring to power.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 08 Mar 2012 19:51

East Libyan leaders declare autonomy from Tripoli
REUTERS - Delegates announced plans for greater autonomy on Tuesday in the Libyan city of Benghazi, prompting an immediate warning from the central government of a foreign-inspired plot to break up the country.
About 3,000 delegates in the eastern city announced they were setting up a council to run Cyrenaica, the province which is home to Libya’s biggest oil fields, in defiance of the government in Tripoli.
The declaration tapped into longstanding unhappiness in the east of Libya at what it regards as neglect and marginalisation by the rulers in the capital, more than 1,000 km (620 miles) to the west.
It deepened the troubles of the National Transitional Council (NTC), the body internationally recognised as Libya’s leadership after last year’s rebellion ousted Muammar Gaddafi. The NTC is already struggling to assert its authority over militias and towns which pay little heed to Tripoli.
“I regret to say that these (foreign) countries have financed and supported this plot that has arisen in the east,” NTC chairman Mustafa Abdel Jalil told reporters.
“I call on my brothers, the Libyan people, to be aware and alert to the conspiracies that are being plotted against them and to be aware that some people are dragging the country back down into a deep pit.”
Moves towards greater autonomy for Cyrenaica—the birth-place of the anti-Gaddafi revolt—may worry international oil companies operating in Libya because it raises the prospect of them having to re-negotiate their contracts with a new entity.
A member of staff who answered the phone at Benghazi-based Arabian Gulf Oil Company (Agoco), Libya’s biggest state-owned oil firm, said the 3,000 employees had been deliberating about whether or not to back the autonomy declaration.
“Some people are in favour and some people are against but there is no official stance yet,” the Agoco employee said.
Several hundred people gathered in Benghazi on Tuesday night to protest against the push for autonomy. They carried placards saying: “No to federalism.”

Royal line
The congress in Benghazi named Ahmed al-Senussi, a relative of Libya’s former king and a political prisoner under Gaddafi, as leader of the self-declared Cyrenaica Transitional Council.
An eight-point declaration said the “Cyrenaica Provincial Council is hereby established ... to administer the affairs of the province and protect the rights of its people”.
It said, though, that it accepted the NTC as “the country’s symbol of unity and its legitimate representative in international arenas.”
The declaration in Benghazi does not carry legal force. It was not clear if the Cyrenaica council would operate within the framework of the NTC, or as a rival to it.
One analyst said the congress in Benghazi would change little on the ground.
“Today’s statement from Benghazi was more a declaration by a group in favour of a high degree of autonomy, rather than a declaration of that autonomy itself,” said Alex Warren, a director of Frontier, a Middle East and North Africa consultancy.
“In reality, Libya is now effectively composed of many de facto self-governing towns and cities, overseen by a weak central authority,” he said.
“The process of integrating these into a new political and economic structure will be volatile ... but I don’t necessarily see it as the spark for any major civil conflict.”

Cyrenaica stretches westwards from the Egyptian border to the Sirte, half-way along Libya’s Mediterranean coastline.
The province enjoyed prestige and power under King Idris, Libya’s post-independence ruler, because the royal family’s powerbase was in the east.
But when the king was toppled by Gaddafi in a military coup in 1969, eastern Libya was sidelined for the next four decades. Residents complain that they have been denied a fair share of the country’s oil wealth.
The rebellion last year which overthrew Gaddafi gave new impetus to calls for local self-determination in the east. These became even more vocal as frustration grew with the slow pace at which the new leadership in Tripoli was restoring order and public services after the revolt.
Some Libyans have dismissed the moves for autonomy in eastern Libya as a ploy by a coterie of wealthy families who had prospered under the old monarchy.
http://www.france24.com/en/20120306-lib ... federalism

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 18 Mar 2012 17:36

Mar 18, 10:12 AM EDT
Clashes erupt in Libya's capital, 1 killed
Associated Press

TRIPOLI, Libya (AP) -- A clash has erupted in Libya's capital, Tripoli, between a militia and residents, killing at least one person.
The fighting involves a powerful militia from Zintan in Libya's western mountains and armed residents of a Tripoli neighborhood once loyal to ousted dictator Moammar Gadhafi.
The well-equipped fighters from Zintan are one of many militias outside government control.
Zintan rebel commander Mohammed el-Rebay said one of his fighters was killed Sunday. He said the two sides are firing automatic rifles at each other.
The clashes are taking place in Tripoli's Abu Selim neighborhood, a pro-Gadhafi stronghold.
The opposition took control of the city in August and later captured and killed Gadhafi.
After Tripoli fell, the Zintan rebels took over a school in the district and converted it into a military base.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 26 Mar 2012 18:25


Colonel Muammar Gaddafi was wanted dead so his secrets would die with him. So insists Mahmoud Jibril, the man who led the NTC uprising to overthrow Colonel Gaddafi's regime, in an exclusive interview with RT.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 30 Mar 2012 16:00

Militia clashes in southern Libya kill nearly 50
(Reuters) - Three days of clashes between rival militias in southern Libya spread to the centre of the country's fourth largest city Sabha on Tuesday despite the deployment of army troops trying to stop the violence which has so far killed nearly 50 people.
The clashes highlight the problems the government faces in imposing its authority following the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi last year.
Fighting between gunmen from Sabha and those from the Tibu ethnic group had reached the centre of the city, said Ibrahim Misbah, a doctor at the main hospital.
An Interior Ministry official said the army had sent 300 soldiers stationed in southern Libya to help calm the situation on Monday. Another 300 soldiers left Tripoli on Tuesday to assist, he added.
Sabha fighter Oweidat al-Hifnawi said government forces had arrived in Sabha and were "in the middle of the clashes".
"We know that they are here to try to solve the problem and not fight," he said. "There are unconfirmed reports that they have retreated out of the city."
The ruling National Transitional Council (NTC) is struggling to assert its authority across Libya, where rival militias and tribal groups are jostling for power and resources after the revolution that ousted Gaddafi.
Hampered by a lack of a coherent national army, the NTC has struggled to persuade the many militias who fought Gaddafi to lay down their arms and join the armed forces and police.
Abdulmajid Saif al-Nasser, an NTC representative for Sabha, said he was resigning in protest because he said the Council was not doing enough to stop the violence.
"I have not seen any reaction from the Council to what is happening now in Sabha. The air force has not been sent out, there was only a plane from the health ministry carrying medicine," he told Libyan television. "The state is supposed to intervene in these cases ... but there is no state."


Fourteen people were killed on Tuesday and 30 people wounded, Misbah said, giving numbers for the Sabha side. Around 20 people were killed in fighting by Monday, he said.
"The hospital crew has been working around the clock since Monday night and the injured keep coming in," he told Reuters.
Ali Galama, a Tibu representative on the NTC from Murzuq, south of Sabha, said 15 people were killed on the Tibu side and 18 were wounded. While he was speaking from Benghazi, he said he was in touch with Tibu in the area by telephone.
The fighting broke out on Sunday after a Sabha man was killed in a dispute over a car.
A fighter called Hifnawi said the clashes had moved from around the airport to the downtown area. "There are Tibu snipers all over the Sabha city centre and the number of the wounded keeps going up," Hifnawi said.
Mousa al-Koni, a Tibu representative on the NTC, said by phone from Tunis that the clashes had escalated after Tibu former fighters tried to steal a car from a member of the Sabha militia. He said a reconciliation committee was being formed to help stop the violence.
Last month, dozens of people were killed in clashes between tribes in the far southeastern province of Al Kufra. Armed forces eventually intervened to stop the fighting, in a rare example of the Tripoli government imposing its authority.
(Writing By Hadeel Al-Shalchi and Marie-Louise Gumuchian, editing by David Stamp)
http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/03/ ... 5K20120327

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 02 Apr 2012 14:10

150 dead in Libyan tribal clashes reveal vacuum in authority
Published: 01 April, 2012, 00:13
Edited: 01 April, 2012, 17:22
Libya's interim government says a ceasefire has been reached in a six-day conflict between two tribes that has claimed some 150 lives in the southern city of Sabha. However, the violence exposes the government's tenuous grasp in the country.
Premier Minister Abdel Rahim al-Kib told reporters in the capital Tripoli that "calm now prevails in Sabha." Previous ceasefires had been announced throughout the week, but collapsed within hours each time, as deep-seated local tensions erupted into violence.
The conflict in Sabha is between the indigenous Arabic population and the Tubu, a tribe that stretches through Niger, Chad and Libya itself, though its members are regarded as outsiders by many in the city.
Residents of the oasis say that the rivalry burst into open conflict Monday after a Tubu shot a member of the Arab Abu Seif tribe. Further aggravating the conflict, a delegation of Tubu elders and armed men heading to reconciliation talks were ambushed. The violence escalated as more and more families were dragged into a deadly blood feud that killed almost 150 people. In addition to the dead, more than four hundred have been injured, overwhelming local hospitals.
Sabha residents say the two groups exchanged fire with automatic rifles, mortars, and rockets. Tubu tribal spokesman Mohammed Lino said some 70 Tubu homes were torched and 100 families were forced to flee the city during the past week of violence. Some families from Sabha said they fled the city by foot as bullets whizzed by, sometimes striking women and children.
Libya's Tubu have kinsmen living across the border in Chad, and the defense ministry said Saturday that it sent a number of militiamen and national army soldiers to the country's southern border in case other African tribes tried to join the fight. Other militiamen as well as tribal chiefs from around Libya were dispatched to Sabha over the past few days. On Thursday, a cease-fire was reportedly brokered that residents say has held in the city, though not outside.
Libya disintegrating

Although Libya’s National Transitional Council nominally controls all of the country, in practice it has struggled to integrate the disparate tribal militias who fought Gaddafi into a single national force. As a result, large parts of Libya have disintegrated into separate fiefdoms.
The clashes in the oasis region some 650 kilometers south of Tripoli show the fragile authority of the Libyan government, particularly in the isolated settlements that dot the southern desert. With only a nascent national army and police force, Libya's ruling National Transitional Council relies on militias comprised of former rebels to keep the peace. However, the country's vast distances make it difficult to deploy them to trouble spots.
The Council has already been accused of passivity, but no-one knows for sure if it actually has the manpower to resolve a conflict in a city that far away from the capital.
The Sabha conflict is not the first major outbreak of violence. Clashes in Al Kufra, also involving the Tubu, killed more than a hundred people last month.

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Re: Lībija (2011)

Nelasītas ziņa tas_pats_lv » 04 Apr 2012 16:30

Renewed clashes between Libyan militias, 26 dead
Published: 04 April, 2012, 18:00
At least 26 people have been killed as violence flares up once again in the western Libyan town of Zwara.
­This comes after tensions sparked over the weekend between the Arab-majority town of Ragdalein and the Berber-dominated town of Zwara, about 110 kilometers west of the capital Tripoli.
The violence is fuelled by deep-rooted animosity between the neighbors, who took different sides in Libya's civil war that toppled Muammar Gaddafi last year.
The clashes had escalated by Tuesday, with militia groups opening tank and artillery fire on each other. At least 22 people died in the fighting.
The National Transitional Council (NTC), which took power after Gaddafi's capture and killing in October, has struggled to stamp its authority on the country and rein in the myriad armed groups that helped defeat the dictator's forces but have refused to disarm.
These local rivalries threaten to divide Libya along tribal and regional lines.

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